Arjuna said: O Krishna, you praise renunciation of all actions, and then you talk about devotional Service or Yoga. Please tell me for sure, which one of the two is better.
संन्यासः कर्मयोगश्चनिःश्रेयसकरावुभौ |
तयोस्तु कर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते || ५ २ ||
Sri Bhagavaan uvaacha:
tayostu karma sannyaasaat
karmayogo vishishyate (SBG 5:02)
Bhagavan Shri Krishna said: Renunciation and the Yoga of performing selfless action both lead to liberation. But among the two, the Yoga of performing selfless action is superior to the Yoga of renunciation of action.
ज्ञेयः स नित्यसंन्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति |
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते || ५ ३ ||
gnyeyaha sa nityasannyaasi
yo na dveshti na kaangkshati
nirdvandvo hi mahaabaaho
sukham bandhaat pramuchyate (SBG 5:03)
A person who neither hates nor desires the results of his actions is known to be a Sanyasi or one who has renounced everything. Such a person is free from dualities and is therefore liberated from material bondage.
साङ्ख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः |
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् || ५ ४ ||
pravadanti na panditaaha
ekam apyaasthitaha samyagu-
bhayor vindate phalam (SBG 5:04)
Ignorant people say that knowledge and selfless action are different but the wise don’t say so. Practising correctly even one of the two assures the result of both.
यत्साङ्ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते | एकं साङ्ख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति || ५ ५ ||
yatsaankhyaihi praapyate sthaanam
tad yogair-api gamyate
ekam saankhyam cha yogam cha
yaha pashyati sa pashyati (SBG 5:05)
That status which is reached by the Saankhyas or the Gnyaanis is reached by Karma Yogis. He who sees knowledge and Karma Yoga, which, is the performance of action, as one, quickly attains Supreme Consciousness.
संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः |
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति || ५ ६ ||
duhkha maaptuma yogataha
yogayukto munir brahma
nachireNaa-dhigacchati (SBG 5:06)
O mighty-armed one, renunciation is difficult to achieve without yoga. However, a contemplative person who is steadfast in yoga can quickly attain the eternal Brahman.
योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः | सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते || ५ ७ ||
sarva bhootaatma bhootaatmaa
kurvannapi na lipyate (5:07)
A person, who is devoted to the path of selfless action, has a pure mind or a purified soul, has his body and senses under control, is compassionate to all living beings and sees his Self in them, although engaged in work, is never in bondage.
नैव किंचित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् | पश्यञ्शृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नंगच्छन्स्वपन्श्वसन् || ५ ८ ||
yukto manyeta tattva-vit
nashnan-gacchan-svapan-shvasan (SBG 5:08)
A person of selfless action thinks, “I am not doing anything at all”, even while seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, dreaming, breathing,
प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि | इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् || ५ ९ ||
pralapan visrijan grihNan-
vartanta iti dhaarayan (SBG 5:09)
talking, giving up, accepting, while opening and closing the eyelids; knowing that they are the senses that are interacting with sense objects.
ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः | लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा || ५ १० ||
sangam tyaktvaa karoti yaha
lipyate na sa paapena
padmapatra-mivaambhasaa (SBG 5:10)
One who dedicates all his actions to the Supreme Brahman/Bhagavan and gives up all attachment to his works, is untouched by sin, just as a lotus leaf is unaffected by water.
कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि |
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये || ५ ११ ||
kaayena manasaa buddhyaa
kevalair-indriyair-api yoginaha karma kurvanti
sangam tyaktvaat mashuddhaye (SBG 5:11)
In order to attain mental purity, Yogis give up all attachment and perform action with their body, mind, intellect or even merely with their senses.
युक्तः कर्म फलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् | अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते || ५ १२ ||
yuktaha karmaphalam tyaktvaa
phale sakto nibadhyate (SBG 5:12)
One who has renounced all attachments to the results of actions attains highest levels of peace, whereas those who are prompted by the desire for the results of their actions, are unsteady and are not free.
सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी | नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन् || ५ १३ ||
sannyasyaaste sukham vashee
navadvaare pure dehee
naiva kurvan-na kaarayan (SBG 5:13)
When a person mentally renounces all actions and has self control, he resides happily in the city of nine gates (figurative description of the material body of a human), neither acting nor causing (body or senses) to act.
Note: The soul lives in a body with nine orifices, which is figuratively called a city of nine gates. People who identify themselves with the body invariably tend to suffer. But he who realises the superior nature of his soul and is conscious of Krishna stays disconnected with bodily activities and thus lives in happiness within his body or the city of nine gates.
न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः | न कर्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्तते || ५ १४ ||
na kartritvam na karmaaNi
lokasya srijati prabhuhu
svabhaavas tu pravartate (SBG 5:14)
The soul which is the master of the body does not create activities nor fruit of actions. All the actions are produced by the Gunas or the three kinds of nature.
नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः |
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः || ५ १५ ||
naadatte kasya chitpaapam
na chaiva sukritam vibhuhu
tena muhyanti jantavaha (SBG 5:15)
The Supreme being accepts neither the sin nor even the virtue of anyone. People are therefore bewildered because knowledge of the Divine Spirit is enveloped by ignorance.
ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः |
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम् || ५ १६ ||
gnyaanena tu tadagnyaanam
prakaashayati tatparam (SBG 5:16)
But, to those whose ignorance is destroyed by knowledge of the Self, their knowledge like the sun, manifests that highest Being.
तद्बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः | गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिं ज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः || ५ १७ ||
gnyaana-nirdhoota-kalmashaaha (SBG 5:17)
When a man’s intelligence, mind and faith take refuge in the Supreme, one is fully cleansed of sins and he goes into the path of liberation.
विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि | शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः || ५ १८ ||
braahmaNe gavi hastini
shuni chaiva shvapaake cha
panditaaha samadarshinaha (SBG 5:18)
People who are wise treat equally, a learned and humble Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, and even a person who cooks and eats dog meat.
इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः |
निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः || ५ १९ ||
ihaiva tairjitaha sargo
yeshaam saamye sthitam manaha
nirdosham hi samam brahma
tasmaad brahmaNi te sthitaaha (5:19)
Even here in this life, those who have their minds situated in equality and in equanimity, have conquered dualities, are flawless and are situated in the Ultimate truth.
न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम् |
स्थिरबुद्धिरसंमूढो ब्रह्मविद् ब्रह्मणि स्थितः || ५ २० ||
na prahrishyet-priyam praapya
brahmavid brahmaNi sthitaha (SBG 5:20)
A person who knows the Supreme Bhagavan perfectly well, has a steady mind. He neither rejoices on achieving something pleasant nor laments on obtaining something unpleasant.
A person who is liberated and is not attached to external objects of the senses achieves bliss which is in the Self. Meditating on the Supreme Bhagavan in his mind, he enjoys unlimited happiness.
ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा
दुःखयोनय एव ते |
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः || ५ २२ ||
ye hi samsparshajaa bhogaa
duhkhayonaya eva te
na teshu ramate budhaha (5:22)
A person who is wise does not rejoice in the enjoyments brought by the contact of sense objects. Such pleasures have a beginning and an end and they are sources of distress and misery.
शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात् |
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः || ५ २३ ||
A person, who, before giving up his body, is able to tolerate urges of desire and anger that are generated in him, is a self-controlled and happy Yogi.
योऽन्तःसुखोऽन्तरारामस्तथान्तर्ज्योतिरेव यः |
स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति || ५ २४ ||
sa yogee brahma-nirvaaNam
brahmabhooto’dhigacchati (SBG 5:24)
A person who is ever happy within, who rejoices within and who is illumined within, is a Yogi who attains absolute freedom, total Self Realisation and Moksha. Such a person becomes one with the Supreme Bhagavan or Brahman.
लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः | छिन्नद्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्वभूतहिते रताः || ५ २५ ||
sarva-bhoota-hite rataaha (SBG 5:25)
Those whose sins have been destroyed, whose minds are clear of doubts, and are always engaged in working for the welfare of all living beings, achieve liberation and absorption in the Supreme Bhagavan or Brahman.
कामक्रोधवियुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम् | अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम् || ५ २६ ||
vartate viditaat-manaam (SBG 5:26)
Sages who are free from passion and anger, who have their mind under control, who have realised the Self and are constantly aiming for perfection, are assured of liberation in the Supreme, here and hereafter.