This Yoga was handed down through generations of royal sages. But in due course of time, the passing down of the Yoga from generation to generation has been broken and the Yoga has been lost, O Parantapa (Arjuna – destroyer of enemies).
स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः | भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतदुत्तमम् || ४ ३ ||
sa evaayam mayaa te ‘dya yogaha proktaha puraathanaha bhakto ‘si me sakhaa chethi rahasyam hyetha-dhuththamam (SBG 4:03)
I have taught you that ancient Yoga of the relationship with the Supreme today because you are My devotee and friend. This is an eternal and supreme secret.
अर्जुन उवाच | अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः | कथमेतद्विजानीयां त्वमादौ प्रोक्तवानिति || ४ ४ ||
The four divisions of the human society are based on the aptitude and work of people, that result from their disposition of nature or ‘Guna’. Though these divisions were created by Me, you should know Me as the non-doer and the immutable.
Bhagavan has created and sustained everything. He is the one who created the four divisions of the social order namely Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. These divisions are based on the Gunas namely Sattvika, Rajasika, the combination of Rajasika and Tamasika and that of Tamasika.
Bhagavandoes not belong to any of these divisions because he is the Paramatma. The four divisions indicate different levels of the orderly development of the Supreme Consciousness. These Gunas are either inherited or developed by people themselves. Therefore people tend to work according to the Guna they belong to. By developing Supreme Consciousness, a person can change his or her own Guna.
People who have reached this level of consciousness, whichever division of the society they may belong to, can evolve to a spiritual position much higher than that of people who are Brahmanas by birth but do not necessarily have the SattvikaGuna in them.
This is because a person who has become a Brahmana by developing the SattvikaGuna also realises and achieves supreme consciousness. A person who fully understands Bhagavan Krishna is higher than all the divisions of the society.
The Gunas or the nature of people decide the social division they belong to. How can a person who lacks courage and is not physically strong, aspire to be a soldier or a Kshatriya? Similarly, how can someone who is very poor in arithmetic ever become a merchant or a Vaishya?
It is needless to say that a person who eats meat cannot attain Sattvika and hence cannot be a Brahmana. A person who is a Brahmana but eats meat involves himself in violent acts and does not possess the SattvikaGuna. Such a person is not a Brahmana at all.
न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा | इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर्न स बध्यते || ४ १४ ||
na maam karmaani limpanti na me karma phale sprhaa iti maam yo ‘bhijaanaathi karmabhir-na sa badhyate (SBG 4:14)
Actions never affect Me nor do I want results of actions. People who understand Me, are never bound by the Karmic results of actions.
एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः | कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् || ४ १५ ||
Such a person who has perfect control over his mind has neither greed nor the sense of ownership over things. His acts are without any sinful reactions.
यदृच्छालाभसंतुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो विमत्सरः | समः सिद्धावसिद्धौ च कृत्वापि न निबध्यते || ४ २२ ||
yadrcchaa laabha santushto dvandvaathiitho vimathsaraha samaha siddhaa vasiddhau cha krthvaapi na nibadhyate (SBG 4:22)
A person who is satisfied with gains that come to him on their own is steady, has surpassed duality and is free from envy. Such a person is even-minded both in success as well as in failure. He is never bound even while performing actions.
गतसङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थितचेतसः |
यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते || ४ २३ ||
The actions of a person who has neither attachments nor the feeling of ‘doership’, and has his mind completely established in Divine knowledge, when performed as a sacrifice unto Bhagavan Krishna, are freed from all Karmic reactions
ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविः ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् | ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्म कर्म समाधिना || ४ २४ ||
The eternal Truth or Brahman is the offering; Brahman is the clarified butter poured into the fire of Brahman. For him, who, through complete absorption in spiritual activities has attained Supreme Consciousness and sees Divinity in everything, the Supreme Being is easily attainable.
दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते | ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति || ४ २५ ||
Some Yogis or mystics perform Yagnyaas or sacrifices to deities, while others who have understood the Absolute Truth, offer the sacrifice of their Atman or Self in the sacrificial fire of the Supreme Brahman.
श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति | शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति || ४ २६ ||
Others again sacrifice all the functions of the senses and those of the breath called Prana or vital energy, in the fire of the Yoga of Self-control which is powered by Supreme Knowledge.
द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे | स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः || ४ २८ ||
dravya yagnyaas tapo yagnyaa yoga yagnyaas thathaapare svaadhyaa yagnyaana yagnyaas cha yathayaha samshita vrathaaha (SBG 4:28)
Others offer their wealth in austerities, they take strict vows, practice Yoga Yagnyaa which is a sacrifice as per the Yoga of the eightfold mysticism and they study the Vedas for spiritual growth and offer that knowledge as sacrifice.
अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे | प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः || ४ २९ ||