Chapter 1

Tavamithram’s Gita Samiti

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श्रीमद्भगवत गीता

 Srimad Bhagavad Gita

 Chapter 1

अर्जुनविषादयोग – Arjuna Vishaadha Yoga

The despondency of Arjuna

The Bhagavad Gita comes under both Shruti as well as Smriti Literature. The term ‘Smriti’ signifies ‘something which is remembered’ and ‘Shruti’ denotes ‘that which is heard’. The Gita being ‘Smriti’ literature, has been handed down over generations. There are a few differences between the commentaries written by great scholars and teachers who carried the knowledge of the Gita through bygone centuries. There are also slight differences in the numbering of the verses. These differences may be found in Chapters 1 and 13.

The metre used almost throughout Srimad Bhagavad Gita is the ‘Anushtup Chanda’ अनुष्टुप्छन्दः . Verses composed in the Anushtup Chanda are quatrains. Each stanza has four lines consisting of 8 syllables each. Every quatrain in Anushtup Chanda has 32 syllables. The entire Mahabharata  and the Valmiki Ramayana  are  composed in Anusthup Chanda.

It is also important to note that there are some verses in the ‘Trishtup Chanda’ too. They are the verses 15 to 50 in the 11th Chapter. Arjuna is the one who starts speaking in the ‘Trishtup Chanda’. The ‘Trishtup Chanda’ consists of 11 syllables per line and 44 in a verse. Verses 51 to 55 of Chapter 13, are back in the Anushtup Chanda or 8 syllables per verse.

The (:)  विसर्गः Visarga is an h sound which is either pronounced or not pronounced in order to maintain metrical balance of 32 syllables per verse.

As we all know, the Srimad Bhagavad Gita has 700 (or 701) verses in total. The one we follow has 47 verses in the 1st Chapter and the 13th chapter ends with verse 34. (Note: The Chapter 13 starts with the verse 13.0 and not 13.1). Some large organisations teaching the Gita, have 46 verses in Chapter 1 and 35 verses (13.1 to 13.35) in Chapter 13. The difference in numbering of the verses of Chapter 1 can be noticed between verses 1.30 to 1.37.

Reading and understanding the 18 chapters of the Gita will change your life, forever.

Let’s begin our quest of understanding the eternal truth as revealed  by Shri Bhagavan Krishna to Arjuna …

1:01

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच |
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः |
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ||१- १||

dhrtaraashtra uvacha
dharma-kshetre kuru-kshetre
samavetaa yuyutsavaha
maamakaaha paandavaas chaiva
kim akurvata sanjaya (SBG 1:01)

1:01

Dhrtarastra said:

Gathered on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, what did my sons and the sons of Pandu who are ready to fight, do, O Sanjaya?

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1:02

सञ्जय उवाच |
दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा |
आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ||१- २||

sanjaya uvaacha
drshtvaa tu paandaavaneekam
vyoodham duryodhanas tadaa
aachaaryam upasangamya
raajaa vachanama braviit (SBG 1:02)

1:02

Sanjaya said:

After having seen the army of the sons of Pandu arrayed, King Duryodhana then approached the teacher Drona and said these words:

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1:03

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् |
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ||१- ३||

pashyaitaam paandu-putraanaam
aacharya mahatim chamuum
vyuudhaam drupada-putrena
tava shishyena dheemataa (SBG 1:03)

1:03

Look, O my teacher, look this vast army of the sons of Pandu, arranged by your gifted disciple, the son of Drupada.

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1:04

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि |
युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ||१- ४||

atra shuuraa maheshvaasaa
bhimaarjuna samaa yudhi
yuyudhaano viraatash cha
drupadas cha mahaa rathaha (SBG 1:04)

1:04

Here in this army are mighty-bowed heroes, who are the equals of Bhima and Arjuna; there are also great fighters like Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada.

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1:05

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् |
पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुंगवः ||१- ५||

dhrshtaketus chekitaanah
kaashiraajas cha viiryavaan
purujit kuntibhojas cha
shaibyas cha nara pungavaha (SBG 1:05)

1:05

There are also great, heroic, powerful fighters like Dhrshtaketu, Chekitaana, Kaashiraaja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Shaibya.

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1:06

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् |
सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः ||१- ६||

yudhaamanyus cha vikraanta
uttamaujaas cha viiryavaan
saubhadro draupadeyaas cha
sarva eva mahaa rathaaha (SBG 1:06)

1:06

The powerful Yudhaamanyu, the valiant Uttamaujas, the son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi – all these are mighty warriors.

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1:07

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम |
नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते ||१- ७||

asmaakam tu vishishtaa ye
tannibodha dvijottama
naayakaa mama sainyasya
sannyaartham taan braviimi te (SBG 1:07)

1:07

For your information O best of the twice born (Dronacharya), I will tell you about those who are distinguished among us, the leaders of my army. I shall now name them for you.

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1:08

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिञ्जयः |
अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च ||१- ८||

bhavaan bhiishmas cha karnas cha
krupas cha samitim-jayah
asvatthaama vikarnas cha
saumadattis tathaiva cha (SBG 1:08)

1:08

Yourself, Bhiishma, Karna and Kripa the winner of battles, Asvatthaama, Vikrama and also the son of Somadatta.

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1:09

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः |
नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ||१- ९||

anye cha bahavah shuura
madarthe tyakta jiivitaah
naanaa shastra praharanaah
sarve yuddha vishaaradaha (SBG 1:09)

1:09

And there are also many other heroes there, those who are determined to give up their lives for my sake. All of them are armed with different kinds of weapons and they are all experts in warfare

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1:10

अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् |
पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ||१- १०||

aparyaaptam tadasmaakam
balam bhishmaabhirakshitam
paryaaptam tvidameteshaam
balam bhiimaabhirakshitam (SBG 1:10)

1:10 The army of ours, protected by Bhishma is limitless, but the army of theirs protected by Bhima is limited.

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1:11

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः |
भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि ||१- ११||

ayaneshu cha sarveshu
yathaa bhaagamavasthitaaha
bhishma mevaabhirakshantu
bhavantah sarva eva hi (SBG 1:11)

1:11 Therefore, all of you, positioned in your respective strategic points,  have to offer your full support to Bhishma.

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1:12

तस्य सञ्जनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः |
सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ||१- १२||

tasya sanjanayan harsham
kuru-vrddhah pitaamahah
simha-naadam vinadyocchaih
shankham dadhmau prataapavaan (SBG 1:12)

1:12

Then gladdening Duryodhana’s heart, Bhishma the powerful grandsire of the Kurus, blew his conch that thundered like the roar of a lion.

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1:13

ततः शंखाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः |
सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत्‌ ||१- १३||

tatah shankhaas cha bheryas cha
pana-vaanaka-gomukhaaha
sahasai-vaabhya-hanyanta
sa shabdas tumulo ‘bhavat (SBG 1:13)

1:13

Then all of a sudden, conch shells, kettle-drums, trumpets, drums and horns blared and the sound made by them was fierce.

Note:

It may be noted that the conch shells belonging to Bhagavan Krishna and Arjuna are referred to as ‘celestial’ conch shells whereas that of Bhiishma is not.

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1:14

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ |
माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शंखौ प्रदध्मतुः||१- १४||

tatah shvetair hayair yukte
mahati syandane sthitau
maadhavah paandavas chaiva
divyau shankhau pradadhmatuhu (SBG 1:14)

1:14

Then seated in a great chariot which was drawn by white horses, Maadhava (Bhagavan Krishna) and also Pandava (Arjuna, son of Paandu) blew their celestial conch shells

Note:

The sound produced by the celestial conch shells forebode the certain defeat of the opposite side simply because Bhagavan Krishna was with the Pandavas.  As Bhagavan was on the side of the Pandavas, His consort Shri Mahalakshmi the Goddess of wealth and fortune was also present with them. Hence, the sounding of the celestial conch shell of Bhagavan Krishna meant that Arjuna was going to be fortunate and victorious.  Agni (the God of Fire) gifted the chariot Arjuna was using, and this indicated that his chariot was indestructible.

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1:15

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः |
पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशंख भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः||१- १५||

paanchajanyam hrshikesho
devadattam dhananjayah
paundram dadhmau mahaa shankham
bhima karmaa vrkodaraha (SBG 1:15)

1:15

Hrishikesha (Bhagavan Krishna), blew his conch Panchajanya, Arjuna blew his conch shell Devadatta and Bhima the one of terrifying deeds blew his great conch shell Paundram.

Note:
Hrishikesha is another name for Bhagavan Krishna. He owns the senses. All living beings are a part of Him and so are their senses.  Bhagavan Krishna is referred to as Hrishikesha in this verse because He is the owner of all senses.  In the warfield, Bhagavan controls the transcendental senses of Arjuna. In the battlefield of Kurukshetra, Bhagavan instructs and directs Arjuna.

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1:16

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः |
नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ||१- १६||

anantavijayam raajaa
kuntiputro yudhist-hiraha
nakulah sahadevas cha
sughosha manipushpakau (SBG 1:16)

1:16

King Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti blew his conch shell called Anantavijaya and Nakula and Sahaadeva blew theirs called Sughosha and Manipushpaka respectively.

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1:17

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः |
धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ||१- १७||

kaashyas cha parameshvaasaha
shikhandi cha mahaarathaha
dhrshtadyumno viraatas cha
saatyakis-chaaparaajitaha (SBG 1:17)

1:17

The mighty archer – King of Kaashi, the mighty warrior Shikhandi, Dhrustadyumna, Viraata, the invincible Saatyaki;

1:18

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते |
सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक् ||१- १८||

drupado draupade-yaas cha
sarvashah pruthiivii pate
saubhadras cha mahaa baahuhu
shankhaan dadhmuh prthak-prthak (SBG 1:18)

1:18

…Drupada, the sons of Draupadi and Subhadra’s powerfully armed son, all of them blew their respective conch shells.

Note:

Sanjaya very subtly lets Dhrtarastra know that the idea of tricking Pandu’s sons in order to seat his own son on the throne was not a very clever one.  All the signs very clearly showed that the Kurus would be obliterated. Had Dhrtarastra not encouraged his sons to carry on with their sinister plan, the devastating battle could have been avoided.

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1:19

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् |
नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलोऽभ्यनुनादयन् ||१- १९||

sa ghosho dhaartaraastraanaam
hrdayaani vyadaarayat
nabhas cha prthiviim chaiva
tumulo bhyanunaadayan (SBG 1:19)

1:19

That fierce roaring sounds made by the conch shells reverberated across the earth and the heavens and rent the hearts of the sons of Dhrtarastra.

Note:

There is nothing much mentioned about the sounds produced by the conch shells of Bhishma or anyone else from the other side. However, the heart shattering sounds (hrdayaani vyadaarayat) made by the conch shells of the Pandavas are mentioned in this verse. The supreme confidence of the Pandavas was due to the presence of the Supreme Bhagavan Krishna along with them. He who surrenders before Bhagavan has absolutely nothing to fear.

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1:20-22

 

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान्‌ कपिध्वजः |
प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसम्पाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ||१- २०||

atha vyavasthithaan drshtvaa
dhaarta-raastraan kapi dhvajah
pravrtte shastra-sampaate
dhanur udhyamya paandavaha (SBG 1:20)

 

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते |

अर्जुन उवाचः

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ||१- २१||

 hrshikesham tadaa vaakyam
idamaaha mahiipate
Arjuna uvaacha

senayor ubhayor madhye
ratham sthaapaya me ‘chyuta (SBG 1:21)

 

यावदेतान्निरीक्षेऽहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान्‌ |
कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे ॥ ||१- २२||

yaava-detaanni rikshe ham
yoddhu-kaamaan-avasthithaan
kairmayaa saha yoddhavyam

asmin rana samudhyame (SBG 1:22)

1:20-22

Then Arjuna, with his flag bearing the image of Hanuman, saw the sons of Dhrtarastra lined up and prepared to fire their missiles’. He raised his bow and said to Hrishikesha (Bhagavan Krishna) the following words :
O Achyuta (Bhagavan Krishna) please position my chariot between the two armies in order for me to see all those lined up seeking battle. I need to know all of whom I will have to fight in this great endeavour of war.

Note:
The scene is being set for the great battle of Kurukshetra. The Hanuman flag clearly indicates that just as Hanuman served Bhagavan Shree Rama (another Avataara of Shree Vishnu, just like Shree Krishna) in the victorious war against Raavana, the battle of Kurukshetra will also be won. The sons of Dhrtarastra had already begun to sense the lurking defeat. With Bhagavan Krishna on their side, the Pandavas had no reason to fear or doubt. They would be fighting guided by Hrishikesha the Bhagavan Himself. All this clearly indicated victory for the Pandavas.

Bhagavan never fails. He never lets his devotees down. Bhagavan is always ready to help His devotees who are pure in the heart.

However, Arjuna, the ardent devotee of Bhagavan Krishna, who followed Dharma, did not want to fight with his own cousins and teachers. He knew that all of them were there in the battle only due to the stubbornness of Duryodhana who was not willing to settle for negotiation at all. But a war is a war and the rules of war had to be followed. Arjuna wanted to first study his enemies and see how determined they were to fight such a battle which could have been avoided.

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1:23

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः |
धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ||१२३||

yotsya-maanaan avekshe ‘ham
ya ete ‘tra samaa-gataaha
dhaarta-raashtrasya durbuddher
yuddhe priya-chikiirshavaha

1:23

I see all my kinsmen are gathered here together ready to fight,  desirous of pleasing the evil minded son of  Dhrtarastra.

Note:

Duryodhana with his evil designs to take over the kingdom of the Pandavas was well known for his diabolical and wicked mind. Therefore, whoever joined him were equally evil because they knew about Duryodhana’s monstrous plans, which were approved by his father Dhrtarastra. An ace warrior that Arjuna was, he wanted to take a look at his opponents to gauge their strength which would help him strategise.  With Bhagavan Krishna and Dharma on his side, Arjuna was absolutely sure of victory but still he wanted to be methodical in war.

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1:24 + 25

सञ्जय उवाच |
एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत |
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ||१- २४||

sanjaya uvacha :
evam-ukto hrshikesho
gudaakeshena bhaarata
senayor ubhayor madhye
sthaapayitva rathottamam (SBG 1:24)

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् |
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ||१- २५||

bhishma-drona-pramukhataha
sarveshaam cha mahii-kshithaam
uvaacha paartha pashyaitaan
sama-vetaan kuruu nithi (SBG 1:25)

1:24 + 25

Sanjaya  said to Drtarashtra: O descendant of Bharata,  being thus spoken to by Gudakesha (Arjuna), Hrishikesha (Bhagavan Shri Krishna)  positioned the fine chariot in between the two armies, in front of Bhishma, Drona and all the Kings and said, ” Look, O Partha (Arjuna), at the Kurus assembled here.”

Note:
There are a couple of subtle but important points to be understood from the two verses above 1: 24 and 25.

Arjuna had conquered sleep and could stay awake for days and nights at a stretch. That is why he is also referred to as Gudakesha which means ‘conqueror of sleep.’ This can also be interpreted as one who has conquered the darkness caused by ignorance. Arjuna overcame ignorance simply due to his closeness with Bhagavan and his total faith in Him. One who has learned to completely trust in Bhagavan and be conscious of Him at all times, is free from ignorance. One who has understood that actions have equal and opposite reactions will stop blaming others and instead take responsibility for the situations they are in.

Arjuna asked Bhagavan to position the chariot between the two armies. Bhagavan is referred to as Hrishikesha or one who can ‘own’ senses of others and control them. When Bhagavan said “पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ” (pashyaitaan samavetaan kuruu nithi) or (Look at the Kurus thus assembled), He probably knew what Arjuna was thinking and was going to think.

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1:26

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् |
आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा |
श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ||१- २६||

tatraa-pashyat sthitaan paarthaha
pitrn-atha pitaa-mahaan
achaaryaan-maatulaan-bhraatrn-
putraan-pautraan sakhiims-tatha
shvashuraan-suhrdas-chaiva
senayor-ubhayor-api (SBG 1:26)

1:26

There, among the two armies,  Paartha (Arjuna) saw, fathers, as also grandsires, preceptors, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, associates, fathers-in-law and also well wishers.

Note:

There on the battlefield, Arjuna could see all his kinsfolk. His teacher Dronacharya, maternal uncles, grandfathers Bhishma and Somadutta, friends like Asvattaama and other well wishers were there. The truth was slowly sinking in Arjuna’s mind. He saw the seriousness and gravity of the situation and realised that it would be heartrending for him to fight his own people.

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1:27

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् |
कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ||१- २७|

taansa-miikshya sa kaunteyaha
sarvaan bandhuun avasthithaan
krpaya para-yaa-vishto
vishii-danni-dama-braviit (SBG 1:27)

1:27

Seeing all his kinsmen assembled together, the son of Kunti (Arjuna), was overcome with great compassion and spoke as follows:

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1:28

अर्जुन उवाच |
दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् |
सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ||१- २८||

arjuna uvaacha
drshtvemam svajanam krshna
yuyutsum samu-pasthitham
siidanti mama gaathraani
mukham cha pari-shushyati

1:28

Arjuna said:  O Krishna,  Seeing my kinsmen and friends in a belligerent state of mind, my limbs are failing and my mouth is parched.

Note:

A brave and born warrior like Arjuna, of course had nerves of steel so there was no element of fear in him. However, he saw that his own people, his cousins and all those he highly respected and admired like his own teacher, standing there waiting to fight him. All of them had turned hostile toward him. This made his limbs go weak and his emotions made his mouth go dry. It was his compassion that made him feel exhausted. The fearless and extremely powerful Arjuna was a pure hearted devotee of Bhagavan Krishna. He was a just and highly compassionate warrior and it was his soft-heartedness towards his own people that made his knees tremble.

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1:29

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते |
गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ||१- २९||

vepathus cha sharire me
roma harshas cha jaayate
gaandivam sramsate hastaat
tvak chaiva pari-dahyate(SBG 1:29)

1:29

My body is quivering and I have goose-flesh. I feel my bow Gandiva slipping from my hands and my skin, burning.

Note:

People experience gooseflesh or the feeling of hair standing on end when subjected to fear, extreme cold or even when they feel ecstatic or moved by extreme emotion. The emotion is also caused by the loss of possessions. Arjuna was not afraid that evil would befall him but he felt sad for all the deaths that would take place in the war. This meant that he was worried and concerned about loss of life. It shows his sense of attachment to impermanent things like life. He felt his bow slipping and as if his skin was burning. This indicates that he was losing his composure and was allowing the situation to affect his intelligence, intellect and his general power of reasoning.   This is the first thing to happen to people who all of a sudden find themselves in an unpleasant situation.

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1:30

न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः |
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ||१- ३०||

na cha shaknomya vasthaathum
bhramatiiva cha me manaha
nimittaani cha pashyaami
vipariitaani keshava (SBG 1:30)

1:30

I am not able to stand and  my mind is reeling. O Keshava (Bhagavan Krishna), I see adverse omens.

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1:31

न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ||१- ३१||

na cha shreyo nupashyaami
hatvaa svajana maahave (SBG 1:31)

1:31

I see no good in killing my own folks in this battle,

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1:32

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च |
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ||१- ३२||

na kankshe vijayam krshna
na cha raajyam sukhaani cha
kim no rajyena govinda
kim bhogair jivitena va (SBG 1:32)

1:32

I do not desire victory O Krishna, nor do I want a kingdom or comforts; of what use is sovereignty to us, O Govinda (Bhagavan Krishna), or pleasures or even life itself?

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1:33

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च |
त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ||१- ३३||

yeshaam arthe kaankshitam no
raajyam bhogaaha sukhaani cha
ta ime ‘vasthithaa yuddhe
praanaam-styaktva dhanaani cha (SBG 1:33)

1:33

All those for whose sake we desire sovereignty, enjoyments and pleasures are gathered here, ready to give up their lives and wealth.

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1:34

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः |
मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः सम्बन्धिनस्तथा ||१- ३४||

aachaaryah pitarah putraas
tathaiva cha pitaamahaaha
maathulaah shvashuraah pautraaha
shyaalaaha sambandhinas tathaa (SBG 1:34)

1:34

Teachers, fathers, sons and grandsires; maternal uncles, father-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives too.

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1:35

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन |
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ||१- ३५||
ethaanna hantu micchaami
ghnato pi madhu-suudana
api trailokya raajyasya
hetoh kim nu mahiikrute (SBG 1:35)

1:35

I do not want to kill them O Madhusudana, even if they should kill us, not even for the rulership over the three worlds and certainly not for the earth.

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1:36

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन |
पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः ||१- ३६||

nihatya dhaarta-raashtraannaha
ka priitih syaaj janaardana
paapam evaashraye dasmaan
hatvaitaa naata-taayinaha (SBG 1:36)

1:36

What kind of joy would that be for us, O Janaardanaa, by killing the sons of Drtaraashtra? We will be committing a sin by killing these warriors.

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1:37

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् |
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ||१- ३७||

tasmaan naarhaa vayam hantum
dhaarta-raashtraan-sva-baandhavaan
svajanam hi katham hatvaa
sukhinah syaama maadhava (SBG 1:37)

1:37

Therefore we should not be killing the sons of Drtaraashtra who are our folks. How can we be happy, O Maadhava by killing our own people?

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1:38 + 39

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः |
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ||१- ३८||

yadhyapyete na pashyanti
lobho-pahata-chetasaha
kula-kshaya-krutham dosham
mitra-drohe cha paatakam (SBG 1:38)

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् |
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ||१- ३९||

katham na jneyam asmaabhihi
paapaadh asmaanni varthithum
kula-kshaya-krutham dosham
prapashyadbhir-janaardana (SBG 1:39)

1:38 + 39

Although these people, whose minds are taken over by greed, see no evil in destroying their family, and sin in being hostile towards friends, why should we O Janardana, knowing very well that destroying family is wrong, not stay away from sinning.

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1:40

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः |
धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ||१- ४०||

kulakshaye pranashyanti
kula-dharmaaha sanaatanaaha
dharme nashte kulam krthsnam-
adharmo-bhibhavat-yuta

1:40

With the destruction of the family, family traditions are lost and when the traditions are lost, the whole family engages in unrighteous acts.

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1:41

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः |
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसङ्करः ||१- ४१||

adharmaa-bhibhavaat-krushna
pradushyanti kula-striyaha
striishu dushtaasu vaarshneya
jaayate varna sankaraha (SBG 1:41)

1:41

When unrighteousness becomes predominant O Krishna, the women of the family become defiled and when the women are defiled, unwanted offspring are born.

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1:42

सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च |
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ||१- ४२||

sankaro nara-kaayaiva
kula-ghnaa-naam kulasya cha
patanti pi-aro hyeshaam
luptha pindodaka-kriyaaha (SBG 1:42)

1:42

Such unwanted population create hell for everyone and they destroy family traditions. Ancestors of people from such fallen families, are deprived of offerings made to departed souls.

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1:43

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसङ्करकारकैः |
उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ||१- ४३||

doshai-retaih kula-ghnaanaam
varna-sankara-kaarakaihi
utsaadyanthe jaathi-dharmaaha
kula-dharmaash-cha shash-vataaha (SBG 1:43)

1:43

From the sins committed by destroyers of family values and traditions, family and community are destroyed.

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1:44

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन |
नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ||१- ४४||

utsanna-kula-dharmaanaam
manushyaa-naam janaardana
narake niyatam vaaso
bhavatii-tyanu-shushruma (SBG 1:44)

1:44

O Janaardhana, we have heard that people whose family traditions are destroyed are condemned to be in hell forever.

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1:45

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् |
यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ||१- ४५||

aho bata mahat-paapam
kartum vyavasitaa vayam
yad-raajya-sukha-lobhena
hanthum svajana-mudya-taaha (SBG 1:46)

1:45

Alas, what terrible sins we are about to commit, driven by our greed to enjoy sovereignty.

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1:46

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः |
धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ||१- ४६||

yadi maama prati kaaram-
ashastram shastra-paanayaha
dhaarta-raashtraa rane hanyus-
tan-me kshema-taram bhaveth (SBG 1:46)

1:46

It would be better for me if the sons of Drtaraashtra killed me with weapons while I stood unarmed and not resisting.

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1:47

सञ्जय उवाच |
एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् |
विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ||१- ४७||

sanjaya uvaacha
eva-muktvaarjunah sankhye
rathopastha upaavishat
visurjya sasharam chaapam
shoka-samvigna-maanasaha

1:47

Sanjaya said: Speaking such words, Arjuna lay down his bow and arrows and took his seat in the chariot, totally despondent.

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हरी ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु

ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे

अर्जुनविषादयोगो नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः ||१||

Hari Om Tat Sat

Iti Srimad Bhagavad geetaasoopanishatsu Brahmavidyaayaam

Yogashaastre

Sri Krishnaarjuna samvaade

Arjunavishaadayogo Naama

Prathamo’dhyaayaha

 

Thus ends the first part of the  Bhagavad Gita

“The Yoga Of the Despondency of Arjuna”

-The Science of the Eternal, the Scripture of Yoga,

the dialogue between Shri Krishna and Arjuna.

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